The ancient n state was formed in the second half of the IX century.


The ancient n state was formed in the second half of the IX century.

Granada – the ruins of the Alhambra, the cathedral of the 16th-18th centuries, the chapel where Ferdinand V and Isabella I are buried, and the Generalife Gardens. Cordoba is a Moorish mosque, the ruins of a palace-fortress, a 16-arched bridge of the Roman period, the largest mosque in Europe, rebuilt in 1236 into a Christian church.

Palma de Mallorca (Balearic Islands) – Gothic cathedral in 1230, a chapel with artefacts by Antonio Gaudi, the church of St. Francis of the 13th century, Almudain Palace, Belvedere Castle of the 14th century.

Spain is considered the largest “hunting” country in Europe. The largest hunting reserve – Sakha (177 thousand hectares) occupies almost the entire eastern half of the province of Santander in the Cantabrian Mountains (north). Bear, wild boar, roe deer, wolf, and roe deer are hunted in the forests of this reserve, and partridge and snipe are hunted from birds.

One of the most beautiful and rich in flora and fauna of hunting reserves in Spain – Somiedo (88 thousand hectares) – is located in the mountains of the northern province of Oviedo. Its forests consist of a wide variety of deciduous species. Here are found bear, wolf, fox, wild boar, roe deer, roe deer, ferret, marten, hare, from birds – capercaillie, partridge, snipe, wild pigeon, quail.


The beginning of the XX century was marked by the flourishing of new Spanish literature, later associated with European existentialism. Its most important representatives are Miguel de Unamuno, Pio Barocha, Antonio Machado. The poetry of the poet Federico Garcia Lorca, who was killed by the Nazis in 1936, gained worldwide popularity. In the twentieth century, Latin American Hispanic literature was born, which became a worldwide phenomenon – authors such as Jorge Luis Borges and Gabriel Garcia Marquez and to this day remain among the most read.

The beginning of Spanish literature in Castilian was laid by a great monument of the Spanish heroic epic Song of Sid (c. 1140) about the exploits of the Reconquista hero Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar, nicknamed Sid. On the basis of this and other heroic poems in the Early Renaissance, Spanish romance is formed – the most famous genre of Spanish folk poetry.

Gonsalvo de Berceo (c. 1180 – 1246), author of religious and didactic works, played an important role in the birth of Spanish poetry, and the founder of Spanish prose is considered to be the King of Castile and Leon Alfonso X the Wise ( 1252-1284), who left a number historical chronicles and treatises. In the genre of fiction, his work was continued by Infante Juan Manuel (1282-1348), author of a collection of short stories Count Lucanor (1328-1335). The greatest poet of the initial period of Castilian literature was Juan Ruiz (1283 – c. 1350), who created the Book of Good Love (1343). The culmination of medieval Spanish poetry was the work of the lyricist Jorge Manrique (ca. 1440-1479).

The Early Renaissance (early 16th century) was marked by Italian influence, led by Garcilaso de la Vega (1503-1536), and the heyday of the Spanish knightly novel. The “golden age” of Spanish literature is considered to be the period from the middle of the XVI to the end of the XVII century, when Lope de Rueda (between 1500-1510 – ca. 1565), Lope de Vega (1562-1635 ), Pedro Calderon (1600-1681), Tirso de Molina (1571-1648), Juan Ruiz de Alarcon (1581-1639), Francisco Quevedo (1580-1645), Luis Gongora (1561-1627) and, finally, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547-1616), author immortal Don Quixote (1605-1615).

During the XVIII and most of the XIX century. Spanish literature was in deep decline and was mainly imitating French, English and German literary models. Romanticism in Spain is represented by three great figures: the essayist Mariano Jose de Larra (1809-1837), the poet Gustavo Adolfo Becker (1836-1870) and the prose writer Benito Perez Galdos (1843-1920), author of numerous historical novels … Leading positions in the literature of the XIX century. occupies the so-called costumbrism – the image of life and manners with an emphasis on local flavor. Naturalistic and realistic tendencies appeared in the works of the novelists Emilia Pardo Basan (1852-1921) and Vicente Blasco Ibáñez (1867-1928).

Spanish experienced literature another rise in the first half of XX century. (the so-called “second golden age”). The revival of national literature began with the writers of the “1898 generation”, which included Miguel de Unamuno (1864-1936), Ramon del Valle Inclan (1869-1936), Pio Barocha (1872-1956), and Asorin (1874- 1967); Nobel Prize winner (1922) playwright Jacinto Benavente (1866-1954); poets Antonio Machado (1875-1939) and Nobel Prize winner in literature in 1956 Juan Ramon Jimenez (1881-1958). They were followed by a brilliant constellation of poets of the so-called “1927 generation”: Pedro Salinas (1892-1951), Jorge Guillen (b. 1893), Vicente Alexandre (1898-1984), who received the Nobel Prize in 1977 , and Raphael Alberti. (born in 1902), Miguel Hernandez (1910-1942) and Federico Garcia Lorca (1898-1936).

The coming to power of the Francoists tragically interrupted the development of Spanish literature. The gradual revival of the national literary tradition began in the 1950s and 1960s by Camilo Jose Sela (1916), winner of the Nobel Prize in 1989, author of the novels The Family by Pascual Duarte (1942), The Beehive (1943), etc .; Anna Maria Matute (1926), Juan Goitisolo (1928), Luis Goitisolo (1935), Miguel Delibes (1920), playwrights Alfonso Sastre (1926) and Antonio Buero Vallejo (1916), poet Blas de Otero (1916-1979) and others …

After Franco’s death, there was a significant revival of literary life: new prose writers entered the literary arena (Jorge Semprun, Carlos Rojas, Juan Marcy, Eduardo Mendoza) and poets (Antonio Colinas, Francisco Brines, Carlos Sahagun, Julio Lamasares).


Culture of Kievan Rus: development and characteristics. Abstract

Development of literature and art. Characteristic features of building in Kiev

Development of literature and art

The formation of the ancient n state begins in the second half of the IX century. The Slavs belong to the peoples of the Indo-European family. The Proto-Slavs inhabited the territory of the ancient Russian state in the III-II millennium BC. They were opposed first by the Cimmerians, then by the Scythian tribes. They began to be called by their own name from the VI century. N. is.

The formation of the ancient n nation belongs to the period IX-X centuries. It was carried out in the process of assimilation of the Slavs with the Finno-Ugric peoples and the Balts. The concept of “Russia” belongs to this time. In a broad sense, “Rus” meant all the lands of the Eastern Slavs under Kyiv. In the narrow sense (geographical) – a place south of Kiev, between the rivers Ros, Rosava, Dnieper.

The ancient n state was formed in the second half of the IX century. It was an early feudal state, the economic basis of which was agriculture. This ensured the permanence of cultural traditions adopted by Kievan Rus from the Scythian agricultural tribes, as well as from the Proto-Slavic ethnic community as a whole.

Ancient Russian culture focused on Byzantium in its development, which was determined by the level of development of material culture and the choice of Orthodoxy by Ancient Russia.

Ancient Russian writing, introduced by Cyril and Methodius, became established in Kievan Rus.

Simultaneously with the development of writing there is an interest in the problems of aesthetics. The most important categories of aesthetics are beauty, image, symbol, canon. With the adoption of Christianity in art, the recognition of the cognitive and cult function to counteract the ridiculous aesthetics of the pagan era was affirmed.

The book culture of Kievan Rus was largely philosophical in nature. Translations of books on philosophy, rhetoric, and grammar were widespread. All known works of the XI century were written in Cyrillic. (and subsequent centuries): Ostromir’s Gospel, Collections of 1073 and 1076, “A Word about Law and Grace” Mstislav’s Gospel, “The Tale of Past Years”. These works are not the only monuments on the basis of which it is possible to form an idea of ​​the nature and level of distribution of writing in Kievan Rus.

The state and the church have taken care of education since the adoption of Christianity. Under Vladimir, there was a state school in Kyiv for children from the prince’s immediate entourage. Libraries were created at monasteries and churches. Yaroslav founded the library of Sophia of Kyiv, his son Sviatoslav created his own princely library. Prince Mykola Sviatosha spent his treasury on books and presented them to the Pechersk Monastery.

Many prominent chroniclers, writers, theologians, philosophers, and publicists studied in ancient Russian schools. Among them are chroniclers Nikon the Great, Nestor, Sylvester, Metropolitan-publicist Hilarion, Bishop Kirill Turivsky, Metropolitan-idealist Klim Smolyatych, Danylo Zatochnyk.

Chronicle in Russia dates back to the time of Askold – 60-80 years of the IX century. (“Chronicle of Askold”). In 1039, a chronicle was created at St. Sophia Cathedral, which was named the oldest Kyiv arch. In the 70-80s of the IX century. Chronicles are kept in the Tithe Church, Kyiv-Pechersk Monastery, where in 1078 Abbot Nikon created an independent chronicle. Nikon acted both as an editor of previously collected materials and as the author of the main text of the chronicle of 1039-1078. The chronicle of 1095 is associated with the activities of the abbot of the Kiev-Pechersk Monastery John.

At the beginning of the XII century. in the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra a chronicle is created, named by its author Nestor “The Tale of Past Years”. This work absorbed all the experience of historical writing of the previous time and the achievement of European thought, the tradition of Byzantine culture. In the introduction to the Tale, Nestor presented a picture of world history, showed the place of the Slavs and Kievan Rus in the modern world, affirmed the idea of ​​interconnectedness and interdependence of the history of all peoples, condemned the princely strife.

Nestor is a widely erudite person: he constantly refers to the Bible as the highest authority of historical knowledge of the Middle Ages, to numerous Byzantine chronicles. The chronicle was brought to 1110. It was edited twice (under Vladimir Monomakh and Mstislav): in 1116 – by the abbot of the Vydubetsky monastery Sylvester, in 1118 – by Mstislav Vladimirovich (or by his orders). As a result, the Norman concept of ancient Russian history, which does not correspond to historical reality, appeared in the chronicle.

In addition to Kiev, chronicles were conducted in Novgorod, Chernihiv, Pereyaslav, Halych, Volodymyr-Volynsky, Volodymyr-na-Klyazmi, and Rostov.

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